9th Class IT Notes – Computer Fundamentals (in English)

Computer Fundamentals

Q:-   What is Computers?

Ans:- computer is an electronic device that manipulates information, or data. It has the ability to store, retrieve, and process data.

Computer Fundmentals

Q:-   What is Input Devices?

Ans:- An input device is a hardware or peripheral device used to send data to a computer. An input device allows users to communicate and feed instructions and data to computers.

Q:-   What is Output Devices?

Ans:- An output device is any peripheral that get feedback from a computer after it performs a task.

Q:-   What is Hardware?

ANs:- Hardware refers to all the physical components of a computer. It includes all input devices, processing devices, storage devices and output devices.

Q:-   What is Software?

Ans:- Software is a collection of programs that a computer can execute. It is also referred to as programs.

Q:-   What is Motherboard?

Ans:- A Motherboard is a large circuit board that connects input, output ad processing devices.

Q:-   What is Operating System?

Ans:- An operating system or OS is a software program that enables the computer hardware to communicate and operate with the computer software. Without a computer operating system, a computer and software programs would be useless.

Computer Fundamentals

Q:-   Define the CPU, ALU and MU.

Ans:- The CPU is the heart and brain of a computer. It receives data input, executes instructions, and processes information. It communicates with Input/Output (I/O) devices. CPU is also referred to as the Processor.

An arithmetic logic unit (ALU) is a digital circuit used to perform arithmetic and logic operations. It represents the fundamental building block of the central processing unit (CPU) of a computer.

Memory Unit:- The computer memory is a temporary storage area. It holds the data and instructions that the Central Processing Unit (CPU) needs.

Q:-   Name of All Input Devices.

Ans:- Keyboard, Mouse, Joystick, Trackball, Lightpen, Touch Screen, Digital Camera, Scanner, Digitizer Tablet, Bar Code Reader, OMR, OCR, IMCR

Q:-   Name of All Output Devices.

Ans:- Monitor, Printer, Speaker, Projector etc.

Q:-   What is a Memory?

Ans:  Computer memory is any physical device capable of storing information temporarily or permanently. For example, Random Access Memory (RAM), is a volatile memory that stores information on an integrated circuit used by the operating system, software, and hardware.

Q:-   Difference Between Primary Memory and Secondary Memory and Its types

  1. Ans:- Primary Memory / Volatile Memory.
  2. Secondary Memory / Non Volatile Memory.
  3. Primary Memory / Volatile Memory–   Primary memory is internal memory of the computer.  It is also known as main memory and Temporary memory .Primary Memory holds the data and instruction on which computer is currently working. Primary Memory is nature volatile. It means when power is switched off it lost all data.

Types of Primary Memory– Primary memory is generally of two types.

RAM  and ROM

  1. RAM (Random Access Memory) – It stands for Random Access Memory.RAM is known as read /writes memory. It generally refereed as main memory of the computer system. It is a temporary memory. The information stored in this memory is lost as the power supply to the computer is switched off. That’s why RAM is also called “Volatile Memory”
  2. ROM  (Read Only Memory) –  It stands for Read Only  Memory.ROM is a Permanent Type memory. Its content are not lost when power supply is switched off. Content of ROM is decided by the computer manufacturer and permanently stored at the time of manufacturing. ROM cannot be overwritten by the computer. It is also called “Non-Volatile Memory”.
  3. Secondary Memory / Non Volatile Memory–Secondary Memory is external memory of the computer. It is also known as Auxiliary memory and permanent memory. It is used to store the different programs and the information permanently. Secondary Memory is nature non volatile. It means data is stored permanently even if power is switched off.

The secondary storage devices are:

  1. Floppy Disks
  2. Magnetic (Hard) Disk
  3. Magnetic Tapes
  4. Pen Drive
  5. Winchester Disk
  6. Optical Disk(CD,DVD)

Computer Fundamentals

Q:-   What is an Internet?

Ans:- Internet is a worldwide collection of public networks that are lined to each other for information exchange.

Q:-   What is an IP Address?

Ans:-  Internet Protocol address is a numeric address that specifies the exact location of a computer on the web.

Q:-   What is ISP?

Ans:- Q:-   Name of three internet service providers in india?

Ans:- B.S.N.L., Airtel, Aircel, Idea, etc

Q:-   Name of any three internet browser.

Ans:- Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, Opera, Chrome, Netscape Nevigator

Q:-   Name of two Internet search Engine.

Ans:- Google      Bing        Yahoo

Q:-   Define the term WWW.

Ans:- The term World Wide Web (www) refers to the collection of public Web sites connected to the Internet worldwide,

Q:-   Name of Web Browsers.

Ans:- Netscape Navigator, Microsoft Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, Opera, Safari, Chrome)

Q:-   What is Search Engine?

Ans:- A Search Engine is a program that allows you to search and retrieve information.

Q:-   What is E-Commerce?

Ans:- Ecommerce refers to the business transactions made over the internet, such as buying and selling items online.

Q:-   What is Computer Security?

Ans:- computer security or IT security is the protection of computer systems from the theft and damage to their hardware, software or information

Q:-   What is Computer Privacy?

Ans:- It includes personal files, user’s data and email messages such that the data is not accessible by anyone without permission.

Q:-   What is Modem?

Ans:- Modem is a connection device that allows you to connect your computer to the internet. It converts digital information into analog information and transmits it over a phone line.

Computer Fundamentals

Q:-   What is Web Browser?

Ans:- Web Browser is a program that enables you to view and interact with various resources on the web.

Q:-   What is Website?

Ans:- Website is a collection of one or more web pages that are linked together and made available through a web server.

Q:-   What is Networks?

Ans:- Networks ia a group of computers that are connected to share resources and exchange information.

Q:-   Explain Server and Workstation.

Ans:-  Server:– Server is the main computer on a network that provides services to other computers on the networks.

      Workstations:– Workstation refers to a computer connected to a network and it use a workstation to access the hardware and software on a network.

Q:-   What is a Cookie?

Ans:-  Cookie is a small file on a computer that is created when a user visits a web site.

Q:-   What is Firewall?

Ans:-  A firewall is a network security system designed to prevent unauthorized access to or from a private network. Firewalls can be implemented as both hardware and software.

Q:-   Explain two types of Email Services.

Ans:- There are two kinds of email services

  1. Application based email
  2. Web based email

Q:-   When an Email is received, what actions can be taken on it?

Ans:- If Email is received, we can read the mail, forward it to another person or reply back. The recipient can also store the email of delete it.

Q:-   What is Email?

Ans:- Email is an electronic message transmitted over internet/computer network from one user to another. Email is a text based mail consisting of lines of text and can include file attachments.

Q.  What is a Desktop?

Ans. A Desktop is a computer display area of windows that contains the various objects find in the computer.

Computer Fundamentals

Q. Name of pictures that are display on the Desktop.

Ans.(i) My Computer

(ii) Recycle Bin

(iii) My Network  Places or Network

(iv) My Documents or Documents

Q.3.  Explain following:

Ans. (i) My Computer: It contains all the storage areas of your computer.

(ii) Recycle Bin: It contains all the deleted content of your computer.

(iii)My Network Places: It contains the information of interconnected computers.

(iv) My Documents: It contains a common area to store files on the computer.

Q.4. What is a Icons?

Ans. All these pictures that we see on screen are known as “icons”.

Q.5. What is a Taskbar?

Ans. At the bottom of desktop  you can see a bar  known as Taskbar, left side may contain a Start button , right side may contain date,time and active device information and the center  of the taskbar may have some shortcuts and active applications.

Q. What is shortcuts?

Ans. Shortcuts  are the direct links to start the applications.

Q:-. Name of various options of Start Menu.

Ans.   (i) Help and Support.

(ii) Search

(iii) Documents

(iv)Programs

Q. What is Notepad?

Ans.  Notepad is a application that allow you to type the content in  a text file.

Q. What is a file and folder?

Ans. File: File is a resource for storing information.

Folder:  A folder is a container  for storing files and folder.

Computer Fundamentals

Q. How we can create a folder in computer?

Ans. 1. Go to the area where you want to create the folder.

  1. Right –click on a blank space.
  2. Select New
  3. Click Folder
  4. Type in a name for your folder
  5. Press Enter.

Q. Name of file formats:

Ans. 1. Word documents (.doc/ .docx)

        2.Images (.gif and .jpg)

  1. Executable programs (.exe)
  2. Multimedia files (.wma )

Q.How we can rename a file/folder? write steps.

Ans. 1. Close the file ,if opened

  1. Select the File
  2. Click the right button of mouse
  3. Select Rename
  4. The file will become editable.
  5. Type the new name
  6. Press Enter key.

            OR

  1. Close the file ,if opened
  2. Select the File
  3. Click F2 button of mouse
  4. The file will become editable
  5. Type the new name
  1. Press Enter key.

Q.  How we can delete  a file/folder? write steps.

Ans. 1. Close the file ,if opened

  1. Select the File/folder
  2. Click the right button of mouse
  3. Select Delete
  4. Pop up will ask to confirm  File Delete- Click on YES

            OR

  1. Select the File/folder
  2. Press Delete key on keyboard
  3. Pop up will ask to confirm File Delete- Click on YES

Computer Fundamentals

Q. How we can copy-paste  a file/folder? write steps.

Ans . 1. Select the File

  1. Click the right button of mouse
  2. Select Copy
  3. Change the Drive and Folder to target location
  4. Click the Right button
  5. Select Paste.

       OR

  1. Select the File
  2. Press Ctrl+C keys together

5.Change the Drive and Folder to target location

  1. Press Ctrl+v keys together.

Q. What is Internet?

Ans.  The Internet is a collection of networks that are connected together  for exchange of information. When the computer is connected to the Internet, it is called online.

Q. Explain advantages of Internet.

Ans.  1. You can use the Internet to communicate with people all round the world.

        2 . The Internet also helps you get the latest information on current events.

  1. You can use the Internet to search for information on any specific topic.
  2. You can take any course of your choice and register for online certification exams over the internet.
  3. The Internet can also be used as a source of entertainment. You can listen to music, play games.
  4. You can buy and sell products ,such as books and electronic  goods, over  the Internet.
  5. You can use the Internet to perform banking transactions.

Q.  Requirements for an Internet Connection

Ans.1.  Computing  device for  eg. Personal  computer , a portable computer or even a mobile device.

  1. Connection device such as modem.
  2. Internet Service Provider(ISP)

Q.18.  What is Modem?

Ans.  A modem is a device that converts digital information into analog information and transmits it over a phone line.

 Q. What is ISP?

Ans.  An ISP is a company that provides  Internet connectivity to individual, businesses and organizations.

Q. Define Bandwidth.

Ans. Bandwidth is the amount of data that can be transmitted over  a network in a certain amount of time.

Bandwidth is measured in Mbps, Kbps or bps.

Q. Name any three internet service providers in India?

Ans.  BSNL, MTNL, Reliance, Airtel.

Q. What is Internet Browser?

Ans. Internet browser is the software , which helps  you to access web pages form various websites.

Q. Name any three  internet  browsers?

Ans. Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Internet Explorer.

Computer Fundamentals

Q. What is a search engines?

Ans. A search engine is a computer program that matches the words you give to pages on the world wide web. To search information on a specific topic, you use a search engine.

Q:-  Name any two internet search engines?

Ans. Google,Yahoo, Bing.

Q. What is a World Wide Web?

Ans. The World Wide Web is a way of accessing and sharing information over the internet by using  Web Browser.

Q. What is Web page?

Ans. A Web page  is a formatted  text document  on the Web  that  a Web browser can display.

Q. What is Web Site?

Ans.  A Web site is a collection of web pages , web pages are linked to each other via hyperlinks. 

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